Sommer Gentry

  • Program Years: 2001-2005
  • Academic Institution: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Field of Study: Optimization/Control Theory
  • Academic Advisor: Eric Feron
  • Practicum(s):
    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (2003)
  • Degree(s):
    Ph.D. Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2005
    M.S. Engineering-Economic Systems and Operations Research, Stanford University, 1998
    B.S. Mathematical and Computational Sciences, Stanford University, 1998

Current Status

  • Status: Professor, Population Health and Surgery, NYU Grossman School of Medicine
  • Research Area: Healthcare operations research, optimization, simulation
  • Personal URL:


1. J. Bastos, M.M. Mankowski, S.E. Gentry, A.B. Massie, M. Levan, C. Bisi, C. Stopato, T. Freesz, V. Colares, D.L. Segev, G. Ferreira. Kidney paired donation in Brazil: a single center perspective. Transplant International, to appear, May 2021.

2. N.L. Wood, D.B. Mogul, E.R. Perito, D. VanDerwerken, G.V. Mazariegos, E.K. Hsu, D.L. Segev, S.E. Gentry. Liver simulated allocation model does not effectively predict organ offer decisions for pediatric liver transplant candidates. American Journal of Transplantation, April 2021.

3. T. Ishaque, A.B. Kernodle, J.D. Motter, K.R. Jackson, T.P. Chiang, S. Getsin, B.J. Boyarsky, J. Garonzik-Wang, S.E. Gentry, D.L. Segev, A.B. Massie. MELD is MELD is MELD? Transplant center-level variation in waitlist mortality for candidates with the same biological MELD. American Journal of Transplantation, April 2021.

4. D. VanDerwerken, N. Wood, D. Segev, and S.E. Gentry. The precise relationship between MELD and survival without a liver transplant. To appear, Hepatology, February 2021.

5. F. Karami, A. Kernodle, T. Ishaque, D. Segev, and S.E. Gentry. Allocating kidneys in optimized heterogeneous circles. American Journal of Transplantation, 21(3), March 2021.

6. J. Ge, N. Wood, D.L. Segev, J.C. Lai, and S.E. Gentry. Implementing a Height-Based Rule for the Allocation of Pediatric Donor Livers to Adults: A Liver Simulated Allocation Model Study. Liver Transplantation, January 2021.

7. N. Wood, A. Kernodle, A. Hartley, D. Segev, and S.E. Gentry. Heterogeneous circles for liver allocation. Hepatology, Nov 2020.

8. S.E. Gentry, M. Mankowski, T.S. Michael. Maximum matchings in graphs for allocating kidney paired donation. Operations Research for Health Care, 25, March 2020.

9. C.M. Holscher, M.G. Bowring, C.E. Haugen, S. Zhou, A.B. Massie, S.E. Gentry, D.L. Segev, J.M. Garonzik Wang. National Variation in Increased Infectious Risk Kidney Offer Acceptance. Transplantation 103(10):2157-2163, October 2019.

10. M.G. Bowring, S. Zhou, E.K.H. Chow, A.B. Massie, D.L. Segev, S.E. Gentry, Geographic Disparity in Deceased Donor Liver Transplant Rates Following Share 35. Transplantation 103(10):2113-2120, October 2019.

11. B.L. Doby, B.J. Boyarsky, S. Gentry, D.L. Segev. Improving OPO performance through national data availability. American Journal of Transplantation. 19(10):2675-2677. October 2019.

12. M.A. Mankowski, M. Kosztowski, S. Raghavan, J.M. Garonzik-Wang, D. Axelrod, D.L. Segev, S. Gentry. Accelerating Kidney Allocation: Simultaneously Expiring Offers. American Journal of Transplantation 19(11):3071-3078. November 2019.

13. C.E. Haugen, T. Ishaque, A. Sapirstein, A. Cauneac, D.L. Segev, S. Gentry. Geographic disparities in liver supply/demand ratio within fixed-distance and fixed-population circles. American Journal of Transplantation 19(7):2044-2052. July 2019.

14. S. Gentry, D.L. Segev. Restructuring the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network contract to achieve policy coherence and infrastructure excellence. American Journal of Transplantation 19(6):1622-1627. June 2019.

15. M. Kosztowski, S. Zhou, E. Bush, R.S. Higgins, D.L. Segev, S. Gentry. Geographic disparities in lung transplant rates. American Journal of Transplantation 19(5):1491-1497. May 2019.

16. E.R. Perito, D.B. Mogul, D. VanDerwerken, G. Mazariegos, J. Bucuvalas , L. Book, S. Horslen, H.B. Kim, T. Miloh, V. Ng, J. Reyes, M.I. Rodriguez-Davalos, P.L. Valentino, S. Gentry, E. Hsu. The Impact of Increased Allocation Priority for Children Awaiting Liver Transplant: A Liver Simulated Allocation Model (LSAM) Analysis. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 68(4):472-479. April 2019.

17. X. Luo, A.B. Massie, S.E. Gentry, D.L. Segev. MELD allocation system: There is always space to improve. American Journal of Transplantation 18(11):2834-2835. November 2018.

18. S. Zhou, A.B. Massie, X. Luo, J.M. Ruck, E.K.H. Chow, M.G. Bowring, S. Bae, D.L. Segev, S. Gentry. Geographic disparity in kidney transplantation under KAS. American Journal of Transplantation 18(6):1415-23. June 2018.

19. C.M. Holscher, K. Jackson, E.K.H. Chow, A.G. Thomas, C.E. Haugen, S.R. DiBrito, C. Purcell, M. Ronin, A.D. Waterman, J. Garonzik Wang, A. B. Massie, S. Gentry, D.L. Segev. Kidney exchange match rates in a large multicenter clearinghouse. American Journal of Transplantation 18(6): 1510-17. June 2018.

20. X. Luo, J. Leanza, A.B. Massie, J.M. Garonzik-Wang, C.E. Haugen, S. Gentry, S.E. Ottmann, D.L. Segev. MELD as a metric for survival benefit of liver transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation 18(5):1231-37. May 2018.

21. A. Wey, J. Pyke, D. P. Schladt, S. Gentry, T. Weaver, N. Salkowski, B.L. Kasiske, A.K. Israni, J.J. Snyder. Offer acceptance practices and geographic variability in allocation MELD at transplant. Liver Transplantation 24(4): 478-87. April 2018.

22. M.G. Bowring, C.M. Holscher, S. Zhou, A.B. Massie, J. Garonzik-Wang, L.M. Kucirka, S. Gentry, D.L. Segev. Turn down for what? Patient outcomes associated with declining increased infectious risk kidneys. American Journal of Transplantation 18(3):617-624. March 2018.

23. E.K. Chow, S. DiBrito, X. Luo, C.E. Wickliffe, A.B. Massie, J.E. Locke, S. Gentry, J. Garonzik-Wang, D.L. Segev. Long cold ischemia times in same hospital deceased donor transplants. Transplantation 102(3):471-477. March 2018.

24. M.G. Bowring, J.M. Ruck, C.E. Haugen, A.B. Massie, D.L. Segev, S. Gentry. Deceased-donor liver size and the sex-based disparity in liver transplantation. Transplantation 101(11): e329. November 2017.

25. E.K.H. Chow, A.B. Massie, X. Luo, C.E.Wickliffe, S. Gentry, A.M. Cameron, D.L. Segev. Waitlist outcomes of liver transplant candidates who were reprioritized under Share 35. American Journal of Transplantation 17(2): 512-8, February 2017.

26. S. Gentry, R. Hirose, D.C. Mulligan. Resolving misconceptions about liver allocation and redistricting methodology, Journal of the American Medical Association Surgery 151(10):991-2, 2016.

27. S. Gentry, E.K.H. Chow, N. Dzebisashvili, M.A. Schnitzler, K.L. Lentine, C.E. Wickliffe, E. Shteyn, J. Pyke, A.K. Israni, B. Kasiske, D.L. Segev, D. A. Axelrod. The impact of redistricting proposals on health care expenditures for liver transplant candidates and recipients. American Journal of Transplantation 16(2): 583-93, February 2016.

28. R. Hirose, S. Gentry, D.C. Mulligan. Increasing the number of organs available to transplant is separate from ensuring equitable distribution of available organs: both are important goals. American Journal of Transplantation 16(2): 728-9, February 2016.

29. S. Gentry, E.K.H. Chow, A.B. Massie, and D.L. Segev. Gerrymandering for justice: redistricting U.S. liver allocation. Interfaces 45 (5): 462-80, September 2015.

30. S. Gentry, D.L. Segev, B.L. Kasiske, D.C. Mulligan, and R. Hirose. Robust models support redistricting liver allocation to reduce geographic disparity. Transplantation 99(9): e159-60, September 2015.

31. S. Gentry, D.L. Segev. The best-laid schemes of mice and men often go awry; how should we repair them? American Journal of Transplantation 15(10): 2539-40, October 2015.

32. S. Gentry, E.K.H. Chow, A.B. Massie, X. Luo, D. Zaun, J.J. Snyder, A.K. Israni, B. Kasiske, D.L. Segev. Liver sharing and organ procurement organization performance under redistricted allocation. Liver Transplantation 21(8): 1031-9, August 2015.

33. S. Gentry, E.K.H. Chow, A.B. Massie, X. Luo, D. Zaun, J.J. Snyder, A.K. Israni, B. Kasiske, D.L. Segev. Liver sharing and organ procurement organization performance. Liver Transplantation 21(3): 293-9, March 2015.

34. A.B. Massie, E.K.H. Chow, C.E. Wickliffe, X. Luo, S.E. Gentry, D.C. Mulligan, D.L. Segev. Early changes in liver distribution following implementation of share 35. American Journal of Transplantation 15 (3): 659-67, March 2015.

35. S. Gentry, E.K.H. Chow, C.E. Wickliffe, A.B. Massie, T. Leighton, and D.L. Segev. Impact of broader sharing on the transport time for deceased donor livers. Liver Transplantation 20(10): 1237-43, October 2014.

36. S. Gentry, A.B. Massie, S.W. Cheek, K.L. Lentine, E.K.H. Chow, C.E. Wickliffe, N. Dzebashvili, P.R. Salvalaggio, M.A. Schnitzler, D.A. Axelrod, and D. Segev. Addressing geographic disparities in liver transplantation through redistricting. American Journal of Transplantation 13(8): 2052-8, August 2013.

37. S. Gentry and D. Segev. Fast-tracking and fairness: getting organ offers quickly to candidates who will accept them. Liver Transplantation 19(4): 358-9, April 2013.

38. Melcher ML, Blosser CD, Baxter-Lowe LA, Delmonico FL, Gentry SE, Leishman R, Knoll GA, Leffell MS, Leichtman AB, Mast DA, Nickerson PW, Reed EF, Rees MA, Rodrigue JR, Segev DL, Serur D, Tullius SG, Zavala EY, Feng S. Dynamic challenges inhibiting optimal adoption of kidney paired donation: Findings of a consensus conference. American Journal of Transplantation 13(4): 851-60, April 2013.

39. A.B. Massie, S. Gentry, R.A. Montgomery, A.A. Bingamin, D. Segev. Center-level utilization of kidney paired donation. American Journal of Transplantation, March 2013.

40. N. Dzebisashvili, A.B. Massie, K.L. Lentine, M.A. Schnitzler, D. Segev, J. Tuttle-Newhall, S. Gentry, R. Freeman, D.A. Axelrod. Following the organ supply: Assessing the benefit of inter-DSA travel in liver transplantation. Transplantation 95(2):361-371, January 2013.

41. L.F. Ross, W. Parker, R.M. Veatch, S. Gentry, and J.R. Thistlethwaite, Jr. Equal opportunity supplemented by fair innings: Equity and efficiency in allocating deceased donor kidneys. American Journal of Transplantation 12: 2115-24, August 2012.

42. S. Gentry, D. Segev. The honeymoon phase and studies of nonsimultaneous chains in kidney paired donation. American Journal of Transplantation 11(12): 2778-9, December 2011.

43. A.B. Massie, B. Caffo, S. Gentry, E.C. Hall, D.A. Axelrod, K.L. Lentine, M.A. Schnitzler, A. Gheorgian, P.R. Salvalaggio, D. Segev. MELD exceptions and rates of waiting list outcomes. American Journal of Transplantation 11(11): 2362-71, November 2011.

44. D.A. Axelrod, A. Gheorghian, M.A. Schnitzler, N. Dzebisashvili, P. R. Salvalaggio, J. Tuttle-Newhall, E. Pomfret, D.L. Segev, S.E. Gentry, S. Hohmann, K.L. Lentine. The economic implications of broader sharing of liver allografts. American Journal of Transplantation. 11(4): 798-807, April 2011.

45. P. R. Salvalaggio, N. Dzebisashvili, K. E. MacLeod, K. L. Lentine, A. Gheorghian, M. A. Schnitzler, S. Hohmann, D. L. Segev, S. E. Gentry, and D. A. Axelrod. The interaction among donor characteristics, severity of liver disease, and the cost of liver transplantation. Liver Transplantation 17: 233-242, March 2011.

46. D. A. Axelrod, N. Dzebisashvili, M. A. Schnitzler, P. R. Salvalaggio, D. L. Segev, S. E. Gentry, J. Tuttle-Newhall, K. L. Lentine. The interplay of socioeconomic status, distance to center, and interdonor service area travel on kidney transplant access and outcomes. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 5(12):2276-88, December 2010.

47. D. Segev, S. Gentry. Kidneys for sale: Whose attitudes matter? American Journal of Transplantation, 10(5): 1113-4, 2010.

48. S. Gentry, R.A. Montgomery, B. Swihart, and D.Segev. The roles of dominos and nonsimultaneous chains in kidney paired donation. American Journal of Transplantation, 9(6): 1330-1336, May 2009.

49. D. Segev, L. Kucirka, S. Gentry, and R.A.Montgomery. Utilization and outcomes of kidney paired donation in the United States. Transplantation, 86(4):502-10, Aug 27 2008.

50. S. Gentry, D. Segev, and R.A. Montgomery. Working together towards a national kidney paired donation program. Letter, American Journal of Transplantation 8(3): 722, March 2008.

51. S. Gentry, D. Segev, M. Simmerling, and R.A. Montgomery. Expanding kidney paired donation through participation by compatible pairs. American Journal of Transplantation 7(10): 2361-2370, 2007.

52. D. Segev, S. Gentry, R.A. Montgomery. Association between waiting times for kidney transplantation and rates of live donation. American Journal of Transplantation 7(10): 2406-2413, October 2007.

53. C. E. Simpkins, R. A. Montgomery, A. M. Hawxby, J. E. Locke, S. E. Gentry, D. S. Warren, D. L. Segev. Cold ischemia time and allograft outcomes in live donor renal transplantation: is live donor organ transport feasible? American Journal of Transplantation. 7(1):99-107, Jan 2007.

54. R.A. Montgomery, S. Gentry, W.H. Marks, D.S. Warren, J. Hiller, J. Houp, A.A. Zachary, J.K. Melancon, W.R. Maley, H. Rabb, C.E. Simpkins, and D. Segev. Domino paired kidney donation: a strategy to make best use of live non-directed donation. Lancet, vol. 268, p. 419-421, 2006.

55. D. Segev, S. Gentry, and R.A. Montgomery. Relative roles for list paired exchange, live donor paired exchange, and desensitization. American Journal of Transplantation, 2006, February, 6(2): 437.

56. D. Segev, S. Gentry, J.K. Melancon, and R.A. Montgomery. Characterization of waiting times in a simulation of kidney paired donation. American Journal of Transplantation, 2005, October 5(10): 2448-55.

57. S. Gentry, D. Segev, and R.A. Montgomery. A comparison of populations served by kidney paired donation and list donation. American Journal of Transplantation, 2005, August, 5(8): 1914-21.

58. D. Segev, S. Gentry, D. Warren, B. Reeb, and R.A. Montgomery. Kidney paired donation: Optimizing the use of live donor organs. Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 293, p. 1883-1890, 2005.


1. USNA Class of 1951 Civilian Research Award, 2021.

2. Finalist, INFORMS Daniel H. Wagner Prize for Excellence in Operations Research Practice, 2014

3. Navy Meritorious Civilian Service Award, 2014

4. Mathematical Association of America Henry L. Alder Award for Distinguished Teaching by a Beginning Faculty Member, 2009

5. Top Ten Abstracts award, American Society of Transplant Surgeons Winter Symposium, January 2009

6. Top Ten Abstracts award, American Society of Transplant Surgeons Winter Symposium, January 2013

7. Computational Science Graduate Fellows essay contest, 2008

8. Featured Innovator (with Dorry Segev), TIME magazine, 2005