Richard Kraus

  • Program Years: 2008-2012
  • Academic Institution: Harvard University
  • Field of Study: Planetary Science
  • Academic Advisor: Sarah Stewart
  • Practicum(s):
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (2010)
  • Degree(s):
    PhD., Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, 2013
    MSci., Applied Physics, Harvard University, 2013
    Mphil, Physics, University of Cambridge, UK, 2008
    B.S. Physics, University of Nevada at Reno, 2007

Current Status

  • Research Area: Shock Physics, Planetary Science, and Geophysics
  • Contact Information: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Publications

40. R.G. Kraus, R.J. Hemley, S.J. Ali, J.L. Belof, L.X. Benedict, J. Bernier, D.G. Braun, R.E. Cohen, G.W. Collins, F. Coppari, M.P. Desjarlais, D.E. Fratanduono, S. Hamel, A. Krygier, A. Lazicki, J.M. McNaney, M. Millot, P.C. Myint, M.G. Newman, J.R. Rygg, D.M. Sterbentz, S.T. Stewart, L. Stixrude, D.C. Swift, C. Wehrenberg, J.H. Eggert, Measuring the Melting Curve of Iron at Super-Earth Core Conditions, Science, Vol 375, 202-205, 2022

39. R.G. Kraus, F. Coppari, D.E. Fratanduono, R.F. Smith, A. Lazicki, C. Wehrenberg, J.H. Eggert, J.R. Rygg, G.W. Collins, Melting of Tantalum at Multimegabar Pressures on the Nanosecond Timescale, Physical Review Letters, V126, 255701, 2021

38. D.E. Fratanduono, M. Millot, D.G. Braun, S.J. Ali, A Fernandez-Panella, C.T. Seagle, J-P. Davis, J.L. Brown, Y. Akahama, R.G. Kraus, M.C. Marshall, R.F. Smith, E.F. O'Bannon, J.M. McNaney, J.H. Eggert, Establishing gold and platinum standards to 1 terapascal using shockless compression, Science, V372, 1063-1068, 2021

37. A. Lazicki, D. McGonegle, J. R. Rygg, D. G. Braun, D. C. Swift, M. G. Gorman, R. F. Smith, P. G. Heighway, A. Higginbotham, M. J. Suggit, D. E. Fratanduono, F. Coppari, C. E. Wehrenberg, R. G. Kraus, D. Erskine, J. V. Bernier, J. M. Mcnaney, R. E. Rudd, G. W. Collins, J. H. Eggert, and J. S. Wark, Metastability of diamond ramp-compressed to 2 terapascals, Nature, V589, 5320535, 2021

36. E. J. Davies, M.S. Duncan, S. Root, R.G. Kraus, D.K. Spaulding, S.B. Jacobsen, S.T. Stewart, Temperature and Density on the Forsterite Liquid-Vapor Phase Boundary, Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, V126, e2020JE006745, 2021

35. S.J. Ali, D.C. Swift, C.J. Wu, and R.G. Kraus, Development of uncertainty-aware equation-of-state models: Application to copper, Journal of Applied Physics, V128, 185902, 2020

34. J.R. Rygg, R.F. Smith, A.E. Lazicki, D.G. Braun, D.E. Fratanduono, R.G. Kraus, J.M. McNaney, D.C. Swift, C.E. Wehrenberg, F. Coppari, M.F. Ahmed, M.A. Barrios, K.J.M. Blobaum, G.W. Collins, A.L. Cook, P. Di Nicola, E.G. Dzenitis, S. Gonzales, B.F. Heidl, M. Hohenberger, A. House, N. Izumi, D.H. Kalantar, S.F. Khan, T.R. Kohut, C. Kumar, N.D. Masters, D.N. Polsin, S.P. Regan, C.A. Smith, R.M. Vignes, M.A. Wall, J. Ward, J.S. Wark, T.L. Zobrist, A. Arsenlis, J.H. Eggert, X-Ray diffraction at the National Ignition Facility, Review of Scientific Instrument, V91, 043902, 2020

33. E. J. Davies, P. J. Carter, S. Root, R. G. Kraus, D. K. Spaulding, S. T. Stewart, S. B. Jacobsen, Silicate Melting and Vaporization during Rocky Planet formation, JGR: Planets, 2020

32. D. E. Fratanduono, R. F. Smith, S. J. Ali, DG Braun, A. Fernandez-Panella, S. Zhang, R. G. Kraus, F. Coppari, J. M. McNaney, M. C. Marshall, L. E. Kirch, D. C. Swift, M. Millot, J. K. Wicks, J. H. Eggert, Probing the Solid Phase of Noble Metal Copper at Terapascal Conditions, Physical Review Letters, V123, 015701, 2020

31. F. Coppari, R. F. Smith, D. B. Thorn, J. R. Rygg, D. A. Liedahl, R. G. Kraus, A. Lazicki, M. Millot, J. H. Eggert, Optimized x-ray sources for x-ray diffraction measurements at the Omega Laser Facility, Review of Scientific Instruments, V90, 125113, 2019

30. D. C. Swift, D. E. Fratanduono, R. G. Kraus, E. A. Dowling, Non-iterative characteristics analysis for high-pressure ramp loading, 27. Review of Scientific Instruments, V90, 093903, 2019

29. D. C. Swift, T. Lockhard, R. G. Kraus, L. X. Benedict, P. A. Sterne, M. Bethkenhagen, S. Hamel, B. Bennett, Atom-in-jellium equations of state in the high-energy-density regime, Phys. Rev. E, V99, 063210, 2019

28. L. E. Kirsch, S. J. Ali, D. E. Fratanduono, R. G. Kraus, D. G. Braun, A. Fernandez-Panella, R. F. Smith, J. M. McNaney, J. H. Eggert, Refractive Index of Lithium Fluoride to 925 gigapascals and implications for dynamic equation of state measurements, Journal of Applied Physics, 2019

27. M. G. Newman, R. G. Kraus, M. Akin, J. Bernier, A. Dillman, M. Homel, S. Lee, J. Lind, J. Mosenfelder, N. Sinclair, D. Pagan, P. Asmow, In-situ observation of phase changes in shock compressed forsterite, GRL, DOI 10.1029/2018GL077996, 2018

26. D. E. Fratanduono, R. G. Kraus, M. Millot, D. K. Spaulding, J. H. Eggert, P. M. Celliers, G. W. Collins, Thermodynamic Properties of MgSiO3 at Super Earth Mantle Conditions, Phys Rev. B. V97, 214105, 2018

25. R. F. Smith, D. E. Fratanduono, D. G. Braun, T. S. Duffy, J. K. Wicks, P. M. Celliers, S. J. Ali, A. Fernandez-Panella, R. G. Kraus, D. C. Swift, G. W. Collins, J. H. Eggert, Equation of state of iron under core conditions of large rocky exoplanets, Nature Astronomy, doi: 10.1038/s41550-018-0437-9, (2018)

24. J. K. Wicks, R. F. Smith, D. E. Fratanduono, F. Coppari, R. G. Kraus, M. G. Newman, J. R. Rygg, J. H. Eggert, and T. S. Duffy, Crystal structure and equation of state of Fe-Si alloys at super-Earth core conditions, Science Advances Vol. 4 no. 4, eaao5864, (2018)

23. Z. Sternberger, B. Maddox, Y. Opachich, C. Wehrenberg, R. G. Kraus, B. Remington, G. Randall, M. Farrell, G. Ravichandran, Inferring strength of tantalum from hydrodynamic instability recovery experiments, J. dynamic behavior mater. (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40870-018-0153-7

22. S. Root, J. P. Townsend, E. Davies, R. W. Lemke, D. E. Bliss, R. G. Kraus, D. E. Fratanduono, M. Millot, D. K. Spaulding, L. Shulenburger, S. T. Stewart, S. B. Jacobsen, The principal Hugoniot of forsterite to 950 GPa, GRL, DOI 10.1029/2017GL076931, 2017

21. Z. Sternberger, Y. Opachich, C. Wehrenberg, R. G. Kraus, B. Remington, N. Alexander, G. Randall, M. Farrell, G. Ravichandran, Investigation of hydrodynamic instability growth in copper, Int. J. Mechanical Sciences. (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2017.08.051

20. S. J. Ali, R. G. Kraus, D. E. Fratanduono, D. C. Swift, J. H. Eggert, An iterative forward analysis technique to determine the equation of state of dynamically compressed materials, J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 121, 195901, (2017)

19. A. E. Gleason, C. A. Bolme, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. Galtier, R. G. Kraus, R. Sandberg, W. Yang, F. Langenhorst, W. L. Mao, Time-resolved diffraction of shock-released SiO2 and diaplectic glass formation, Nature Communications Vol. 8, 1481, (2017)

18. D. N. Polsin, D. E. Fratanduono, J. R. Rygg, A. Lazicki, R. F. Smith, J. H. Eggert, M. C. Gregor, B. H. Henderson, J. A. Delettrez, R. G. Kraus, P. M. Celliers, F. Coppari, D. C. Swift, C. A. McCoy, C. T. Seagle, J.-P. Davis, S. J. Burns, G. W. Collins, and T. R. Boehly, Measurement of Body-Centered-Cubic Aluminum at 475 GPa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 175702, (2017)

17. R. G. Kraus, J-P. Davis, C. Seagle, D. E. Fratanduono, D. C. Swift. J. Brown, J. H. Eggert, Dynamic compression of copper to over 400 GPa: A high pressure standard, Phys. Rev. B, Vol 93, 134105 (2016).

16. A. E. Gleason, C. Bolme, H.J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. Galtier, D. Milathianaki, J. Eggert, J. Hawreliak, D. Fratanduono, R.G. Kraus, G. Collins, W. Yang, and W. L. Mao, Crystallization Kinetics Under Shock Compression, Nature Communications, (2015) DOI: 10.1038/NCOMMS9191

15. A. Lazicki, J. R. Rygg, F. Coppari, R. Smith, D. Fratanduono, R. G. Kraus, G. W. Collins, R. Briggs, D. G.Braun, D. C. Swift, and J. H. Eggert, X-Ray Diffraction of Solid Tin to 1.2 TPa. Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 075502 (2015). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.075502

14. D. E. Fratanduono, R. F. Smith, D. G. Braun, J. R. Patterson, R. G. Kraus, T. S. Perry, A. Arsenlis, G. W. Collins, J. H. Eggert, The effect of nearly steady shock waves in ramp compression experiments, J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 117, 017524, 2015

13. T. Qi, M. Millot, R.G. Kraus, S. Root, and S. Hamel, Optical and Transport Properties of Dense Liquid Silica, Phys. Plasmas, Vol. 22, 062706, 2015

12. R.G. Kraus, S. Root, R.W. Lemke, S.T. Stewart, S.B. Jacobsen, T.R. Mattsson, Impact vaporization of planetesimal cores in the late stages of planet formation, Nature Geoscience, March 2015, DOI:10.1038/NGEO2369.

11. R.G. Kraus, S. T. Stewart, M. G. Newman, R. E. Milliken, N. J. Tosca, Uncertainties in the shock devolatilization of hydrated minerals: A nontronite case study, JGR- Planets, V118, 1-9, doi:10.1002/jgre.20147, 2013.

10. R.G. Kraus, S.T. Stewart, D.C. Swift, R. Smith, S. Hamel, B.D. Hammel, D.G. Hicks, J.H. Eggert, G.W. Collins, C.A. Bolme, D.K. Spaulding, Shock Vaporization of Silica and the Thermodynamics of Planetary Impact Events, JGR- Planets, 214, E09009, doi:10.1029/2012JE004082, 2012.

9. R.G. Kraus, L.E. Senft, S. T. Stewart, Impacts onto H2O Ice: Scaling Laws for Melting, Vaporization, Excavation, and Final Crater Size, Icarus, 214, 724-738, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.05.016, 2011.

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Awards

Weapons and Complex Integration, Silver Award, 2020
Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, 2019
Global Security Silver Award, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2019
Global Security Silver Award, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2016
Discover Magazine, Top 100 Discoveries of the Year (#62), 2015
UNR, College of Science, Young Alumni of the Year, 2014
APS-SCCM, Outstanding Student/Post-doc Award, 2014
Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Lawrence Postdoctoral Fellowship, 2014
AGU, Mineral and Rock Physics, Graduate Research Award, 2012
High Pressure Gordon Research Conference, Jamieson Award, 2012
Harvard GSAS Merit Fellowship, 2012
Lunar and Planetary Institute, Career Development Award, 2011
AGU, Mineral and Rock Physics Outstanding Student Paper Award Winner, 2010
Shock Compression of Condensed Matter Topical Group, Student Scholarship, 2009
James Mills Peirce Fellowship, 2008
Distinguished Student Performance Award, Los Alamos National